Elastomeric cardiopatch scaffold for myocardial repair and ventricular support

OBJECTIVES: Prevention of postischaemic ventricular dilatation progressing towards pathological remodelling is necessary to decrease ventricular wall deterioration. Myocardial tissue engineering may play a therapeutic role due to its capacity to replace the extracellular matrix, thereby creating niches for cell homing. In this experimental animal study, a biomimetic cardiopatch was created with elastomeric scaffolds and nanotechnologies.

METHODS: In an experimental animal study in 18 sheep, a cardiopatch was created with adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells seeded into an engineered bioimplant consisting of 3-dimensional bioabsorbable polycaprolactone scaffolds filled with a peptide hydrogel (PuraMatrixTM). This patch was then transplanted to cover infarcted myocardium. Non-absorbable poly(ethyl) acrylate polymer scaffolds were used as controls. RESULTS: Fifteen sheep were followed with ultrasound scans at 6months, including echocardiography scans, tissue Doppler and spectral flow analysis and speckle-tracking imaging, which showed a reduction in longitudinal left ventricular deformation in the cardiopatchtreated group. Magnetic resonance imaging (late gadolinium enhancement) showed reduction of infarct size relative to left ventricular mass in the cardiopatch group versus the controls. Histopathological analysis at 6months showed that the cardiopatch was fully anchored and integrated to the infarct area with minimal fibrosis interface, thereby promoting angiogenesis and migration of adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells to surrounding tissues.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the feasibility and effectiveness of a cardiopatch grafted onto myocardial infarction scars in an experimental animal model. This treatment decreased fibrosis, limited infarct scar expansion and reduced postischaemic ventricular deformity. A capillary network developedbetween our scaffoldand the heart. The elastomeric cardiopatch seemsto have apositive impact onventricular remodelling and performance in patients with heart failure.

Keywords: Heart failure • Cardiac tissue engineering • Elastomeric scaffold • Cardiopatch • Cardiowrap • Translational and clinical research


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